Annual Land Use and Land Cover Maps across Mainland Vietnam from 1990 to 2020
(Released in September 2021 / Version 21.09)
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2. Data used for creating the map
- Data 1: Sentinel-1 SAR GRD
- Data 2: Sentinel-2 MSI Level-2A
- Data 3: Landsat 8 OLI (Collection 1)
- Data 4: Landsat 7 ETM+ (Collection 1)
- Data 5: Landsat 5 and 4 TM (Collection 1)
- Data 6: Ground survey data, inventory data, and visual interpretation of satellite data (130,000 sites)
- Data 7: ALOS PRISM Digital Surface Model (AW3D DSM) are used to calculate slope, aspect, and elevation
- Data 8: Covariates and indices derived from the data 2, 3, 4, and 5
- Data 9: Ancillary data including distance to rivers, coastlines, transport systems, and buildings
3. Classification algorithm
Random Forest with post-classification optimization [References 1 and 2]
4. Data format
- Coordinate system: EPSG:4326 - WGS 84 - Geographic
- Unit: Degrees (0.000269494524118 ~ 30 m and 0.002304973119750 ~ 250 m)
- North Bound: 23.4231218758333 degree North
- South Bound: 8.45916666666667 degree North
- East Bound: 109.564638888889 degree East
- West Bound: 102.041429753611 degree East
- Format: GeoTIFF
- Period of coverage: annually from 1990 to 2020
- File naming convention: For example, a map is named "VLUCD_L1_30m_2020.tif"
- "VLUCD" indicates the coordinate of the Vietnam-wide land use/cover database.
- "L1" indicates level one of the map with 10 different classes of primary dominant land use/cover in Vietnam.
- "30m" indicates the 30-m spatial resolution of the map.
- "2020" indicates the mapping year that is 2020.
- The value of each pixel indicates a single classified land cover type. It depends on the level of the map as follows:
5. Accuracy assessment
Figure 1. The overall accuracy (OA) and uncertainty of the Vietnam-wide annual land use/cover maps. The OA is estimated by using a confusion matrix and a stratified random sampling method with independent samples (1050 sites/LULC class). Bars indicate the uncertainties of the OA measured with a 95% confidence interval.
Figure 2. Spatial-temporal dynamics (left) and change pattern (right) of several dominant land types, namely the residential land (A), aquaculture land (B), and forests land (C) in Vietnam from 1990 to 2020.
- Phan, D. C. et al. First comprehensive quantification of annual land use/cover from 1990 to 2020 across mainland Vietnam. Sci. Rep. 11, (2021) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-89034-5
- Phan, D. C. et al. Ensemble learning updating classifier for accurate land cover assessment in tropical cloudy areas. Geocarto Int. 1?18 (2021) DOI:10.1080/10106049.2021.1878292
- Phan, D. C. et al. JAXA high-resolution land use/land cover map for Central Vietnam in 2007 and 2017. Remote Sens. 10, 1406 (2018) DOI: 10.3390/rs10091406
- AW3D30 data were provided by courtesy of JAXA and support from the Remote Sensing Technology Renter of Japan
- Multi-temporal Landsat and SRTM data provided by courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey
- Base map and data from OpenStreetMap and OpenStreetMap Foundation. Data archives and processing services provided by courtesy of Google Earth Engine, General Statistics Office of Vietnam, and World Pop
- The Project for Human Resource Development Scholarship by Japanese Grant Aid (JDS)