Homepage of High-Resolution Land Use and Land Cover Map Products

High-Resolution Land Use and Land Cover Map of the Northern Region of Vietnam (Released in Sep. 2016 / Version 16.09)

1. Summary

JAXA releases the High-Resolution Land Use and Land Cover (HRLULC) map of the northern region of Vietnam as the first overseas high-resolution LULC map. As Vietnam is experiencing continuous economic growth, it is also experiencing a rapid environmental change. We are creating this product for the purpose of assessment of climate change, agricultural investigation etc. In order to highlight the land cover change, we created a map for each of year 2007 and 2015, making use of satellite datasets such as Landsat, ASTER, PALSAR, PALSAR-2 mosaic etc.

2. Data used for creating the map

  • Data 1: Landsat-8 OLI 30 m resolution, 199 scenes (2015)
  • Data 2: Landsat-5 TM 30 m resolution, 140 scenes (2007)
  • Data 3: ASTER-VA 15 m resolution, 68 scenes (2015)
  • Data 4: ASTER-VA 15 m resolution, 55 scenes (2007)
  • Data 5: ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 25 m resolution mosaic dataset (2015)
  • Data 6: ALOS PALSAR 25 m resolution mosaic dataset (2007)
  • Data 7: SRTM-1 30 m resolution and the map of its slope.
  • Data 8: Suomi NPP nightlight 500 m resolution (2015)
  • Data 9: The map of distances from roads (Roadmap ©OpenStreetMap contributors)
  • Data 10: Sea mask of PRISM DSM

3. Classification algorithm

Bayesian classifier with kernel density estimation (Hashimoto et al., 2014; Hoang Thanh Tung 2016)

4. Data format

  • Coordinate system: Latitude and longitude coordinate system with ITRF-94 on GRS-80 ellipsoid.
  • Tile unit: 1 degree x 1 degree, (7,054 pixels x 7,054 lines)
  • Mesh size: (1 / 7,054) degree × (1 / 7,054) degree (corresponding to approximate 15 m × 15 m)
  • File naming convention: For example, LC_N18E106.tif indicates 18 to 19 degrees north latitude and 106 to 107 degrees east longitude.
  • Format: GeoTIFF format
  • Period of coverage: Year 2007 and 2015 (two different maps)

The value of each pixel is the ID number of the category for classification as follows:

  • #0: Unclassified
  • #1: Water
  • #2: Urban and built-up
  • #3: Rice paddy
  • #4: Crops
  • #5: Grassland
  • #6: Orchards
  • #7: Bare land
  • #8: Forest
  • #9: Mangrove
  • #255: No data

5. Accuracy verification

Tables 1 and 2 show the results of accuracy verification using 20,030 points of reference data, which were interpretation from satellite images independent of the input images. In the map of year 2015, the overall accuracy was 89.1% (Table 1; Note 1) and the κ coefficient was 0.872, whereas the map of year 2007 got the overall accuracy 81.3% (Table 2; Note 1) and the κ coefficient 0.781.
Figures 1 and 2 show the results of the HRLULC map in the northern part of Vietnam (2015 and 2007, respectively).

Table 1: Confusion matrix showing producer’s, user’s and overall accuracies of the HRLULC map of the northern region of Vietnam in 2015.
  Classified Producer's
accuracy (%)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TOTAL
Validation 1 1,096 13 31 12 1 11 3 2 2 1,171 93.6
2 3 2,429 23 66 0 25 5 0 2 2,553 95.1
3 22 49 4,066 283 9 34 99 2 6 4,570 89.0
4 6 55 98 1,712 48 108 11 28 0 2,066 82.9
5 0 1 9 29 1,246 16 75 146 5 1,527 81.6
6 0 9 8 42 6 1,650 4 32 14 1,765 93.5
7 6 40 30 29 106 19 1,738 24 13 2,005 86.7
8 1 4 6 65 275 50 35 3,603 25 4,064 88.7
9 2 1 0 0 2 2 1 1 300 309 97.1
TOTAL 1,136 2,601 4,271 2,238 1,693 1,915 1,971 3,838 367 20,030 ---
User's
accuracy (%)
96.5 93.4 95.2 76.5 73.6 86.2 88.2 93.9 81.7 --- Overall accuracy:
89.1%
Table2: Confusion matrix showing producer’s, user’s and overall accuracies of the HRLULC map of the northern region of Vietnam in 2007.
  Classified Producer's
accuracy (%)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TOTAL
Validation 1 1,029 17 60 18 9 13 13 2 10 1,171 87.9
2 6 2,410 18 35 2 72 5 0 5 2,553 94.4
3 48 69 3,746 404 16 137 128 5 17 4,570 82.0
4 5 70 237 1,336 106 215 65 31 1 2,066 64.7
5 0 3 20 30 1,082 19 163 206 4 1,527 70.9
6 0 20 24 41 44 1,569 34 9 24 1,765 88.9
7 6 43 26 73 296 31 1,331 193 6 2,005 66.4
8 0 7 10 42 351 69 81 3,490 14 4,064 85.9
9 16 1 2 1 1 1 0 0 287 309 92.9
TOTAL 1,110 2,640 4,143 1,980 1,907 2,126 1,820 3,936 368 20,030 ---
User's
accuracy (%)
92.7 91.3 90.4 67.5 56.7 73.8 73.1 88.7 78 --- Overall accuracy:
81.3%
  • Note 1: This accuracy verification is a preliminary one, lacking rigorous randomness in sampling from the population.

Figures 1 and 2 show the results of the land use map in the northern part of Vietnam (2015 and 2007, respectively).

Figure 1: HRLULC map in the northern part of Vietnam (2015).
Figure 1: HRLULC map in the northern part of Vietnam (2015).

Figure 2: HRLULC map in the northern part of Vietnam (2007).
Figure 2: HRLULC map in the northern part of Vietnam (2007).

Figure 3 shows an example of the land cover change that is confirmed as a result of comparing the two HRLULC maps of 2007 and 2015.

Figure 3: Comparison of the land cover maps of 2007 and 2015
Figure 3: Comparison of the HRLULC maps of 2007 and 2015.
The land cover changes (deforestation and new water bodies) near Cua Dat Dam (built in 2004 - 2009) is captured.

6. References

1) "A New Method to Derive Precise Land-use and Land-cover Maps Using Multi-temporal Optical Data", Shutaro Hashimoto, Takeo Tadono, Masahiko Onosato, Masahiro Hori and Kei Shiomi (2014) Journal of The Remote Sensing Sociery of Japan, 34 (2), 102-112.

2) "Analysis of Land Cover Change in Northern Vietnam Using High Resolution Remote Sensing Data", Hoang Thanh Tung, Master’s thesis, University of Tsukuba, 2016.

Acknowledgements

  • Landsat 8 OLI and Landsat 5 TM image courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey.
  • ASTER-VA image courtesy NASA/METI/AIST/Japan Spacesystems, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team (see: https://gbank.gsj.jp/madas/?lang=en#contentss for detail)
  • The SRTMGL1 data product was retrieved from the online Data Pool, courtesy of the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), USGS/Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/data_access/data_pool.
  • Suomi NPP VIIRS Daily Mosaic Image and Data processing by NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center.
  • OpenStreetMap © OpenStreetMap contributors

Download product

Please use the following links.

  • Year of 2015
    • 15m resolution GeoTiff  (72MB)    download
    • 250m resolution GeoTiff  (806KB)    download
  • Year of 2007
    • 15m resolution GeoTiff  (68MB)    download
    • 250m resolution GeoTiff  (799KB)    download