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High-Resolution Land Use and Land Cover Map of the Central Region of Vietnam (Released in July 2018 / Version 18.07)

1. Summary

Anthropogenic pressures on land cover system over central Vietnam are growing because of the socio-economic development. In order to highlight the land cover change, we created maps for the year 2007 and 2015, making use of satellite datasets such as Sentinel, Landsat, ALOS-AVNIR-2, PALSAR, PALSAR-2 mosaic etc.

2. Data used for creating the map

  • Data 1: Sentinel 2 10 m resolution, 183 scenes (2017).
  • Data 2: Landsat 8 OLI 30 m resolution, 87 scenes (2017).
  • Data 3: Landsat 7 ETM+ 30 m resolution, 126 scenes (2007).
  • Data 4: Landsat 5 TM 30 m resolution, 85 scenes (2007).
  • Data 5: ALOS AVNIR 2 10 m resolution, 203 scenes (2007).
  • Data 6: ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 25 m resolution mosaic dataset (2017).
  • Data 7: ALOS PALSAR 25 m resolution mosaic dataset (2007).
  • Data 8: SRTM-1 30 m resolution and the map of its slope.
  • Data 9: The map of distances from roads (Roadmap ©OpenStreetMap contributors).

3. Classification algorithm

Bayesian classifier with kernel density estimation (Hashimoto et al., 2014)

4. Data format

  • Coordinate system: Latitude and longitude coordinate system with ITRF-94 on GRS-80 ellipsoid.
  • Tile unit: 1 degree x 1 degree, (10,581 pixels x 10,581 lines)
  • Mesh size: (1 / 10,581) degree × (1 / 10,581) degree (corresponding to approximate 10 m × 10 m)
  • File naming convention: For example, LC_N18E106.tif indicates 18 to 19 degrees north latitude and 106 to 107 degrees east longitude.
  • Format: GeoTIFF format
  • Period of coverage: Year 2007 and 2017 (two different maps)

The value of each pixel is the ID number of the category for classification as follows:

  • #0: Unclassified
  • #1: Water
  • #2: Urban and built-up
  • #3: Rice paddy
  • #4: Crops
  • #5: Grassland
  • #6: Orchards
  • #7: Bare land
  • #8: Forest
  • #9: Mangrove
  • #255: No data

5. Accuracy verification

Tables 1 and 2 present the accuracy of central Vietnam maps for producers, users and overall accuracy based on a confusion matrix. The overall accuracy of central Vietnam land cover/land use maps for the year 2007 and 2017 are 90.5 % (kappa coefficient of 90 %) and 90.6 % (kappa coefficient of 90 %) respectively. Figures 1a and 1b show the results of 10-m spatial resolution land cover maps of the central Vietnam for the year 2007 and 2017 respectively.

Table 1: Confusion matrix showing producer’s, user’s and overall accuracies of the central Vietnam land cover map in 2007.
  Classified Producer's
accuracy (%)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TOTAL
Validation 1 644 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 11 659 97.8
2 0 1,005 3 64 31 76 2 0 0 1,181 85.1
3 0 6 1,138 12 3 2 15 2 58 1,236 92.1
4 0 12 8 1,123 73 105 6 6 2 1,335 84.2
5 0 6 0 4 377 5 1 0 0 393 96.0
6 0 8 2 34 11 637 0 45 0 737 86.5
7 0 7 0 1 1 1 496 0 0 506 98.1
8 1 0 1 0 1 60 0 986 0 1,049 94.0
9 23 0 16 0 2 0 0 0 495 536 92.4
TOTAL 668 1044 1172 1238 499 886 520 1039 566 7632 91.8
User's
accuracy (%)
96.5 96.3 97.1 90.8 75.6 71.9 95.4 94.9 87.5 89.6 90.5%
Kappa
coefficient
0.9

Table2: Confusion matrix showing producer’s, user’s and overall accuracies of the central Vietnam land cover map in 2017.
  Classified Producer's
accuracy (%)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TOTAL
Validation 1 2,636 2 1 0 4 0 0 0 2 2,645 99.7
2 0 1,799 1 70 58 75 17 0 0 2,020 89.1
3 5 0 2,971 17 0 11 0 28 19 3,051 97.4
4 2 33 157 2,454 181 171 0 28 48 3,074 79.9
5 84 74 7 107 1,821 135 0 46 7 2,281 79.9
6 1 12 4 153 72 765 0 54 8 1,069 71.6
7 12 60 5 16 7 3 1,264 0 0 1,367 92.5
8 0 0 8 3 1 10 1 3,291 0 3,314 99.4
9 7 3 5 2 2 1 1 22 781 824 94.8
TOTAL 2,747 1,983 3,159 2,822 2,146 1,171 1,283 3,469 865 19,645 89.4
User's
accuracy (%)
96.0 90.8 94.1 87.0 84.9 65.4 98.6 94.9 90.3 89.1 90.6
Kappa
coefficient
0.9

Figure 1: The 2007 land cover map (a) and  the 2017 land cover map (b)
Figure 1: The 2007 land cover map (a) and the 2017 land cover map (b).

6. References

1) "A New Method to Derive Precise Land-use and Land-cover Maps Using Multi-temporal Optical Data", Shutaro Hashimoto, Takeo Tadono, Masahiko Onosato, Masahiro Hori and Kei Shiomi (2014) Journal of The Remote Sensing Sociery of Japan, 34 (2), 102-112.

2) "Analysis of Land Cover Changes in Central Vietnam Using High Resolution Multi-spectral-temporal Remotely Sensed Data", Phan Cao Duong, Master’s thesis, University of Tsukuba, 2018.

3) "JAXA High-Resolution Land Use/Land Cover Map for Central Vietnam in 2007 and 2017", Phan Cao Duong, Ta Hoang Trung, Kenlo Nishida Nasahara and Takeo Tadono (2018) Remote Sensing, 10(9), 1406.

Acknowledgements

  • Sentinel 2, Landsat 8 OLI, Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 5 TM image courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey.
  • ALOS-AVNIR-2, PALSAR and PALSAR Mosaic image courtesy of JAXA (see: http://www.eorc.jaxa.jp/ALOS/en/gallery/new_arr.htm for detail)
  • The SRTMGL1 data product was retrieved from the online Data Pool, courtesy of the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), USGS/Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/data_access/data_pool.
  • OpenStreetMap © OpenStreetMap contributors

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Please read Top-page of High-Resolution Land Use and Land Cover Map Product section 3; Download and register your information from following URL to download the dataset.