In EORC, each research projects analyze the data, develop a analisys algorizum, calibrate & validate data, accumulate useful knowledge. In addition to this, .we intend to reflect these knowledge to future satellite development.
The EORC calibrates and validate observation data collected by the Advanced Land Observing Satellite(ALOS), nicknamed “DAICHI”, to maintain its quality and conducts research on techniques for extracting a variety of information from the images. For example, we process images to learn the global deforestation status and provide this data to the relevant research institutes. By providing accurate information on the deforestation and degradation of forests in developing countries, we hope to contribute to the reduction of CO2 and other greenhouse gas emission and to the preservation of our ecosystems.
One major characteristic of the GPM mission as follow-on and expansion of the TRMM satellite is operation of the GPM core satellite, which will carry an active precipitation radar and a passive microwave radiometer, with a non-sun-synchronous orbit as a “calibrator” to other satellites. The other is its collaboration with a constellation of several other satellites developed by each international partner (space agency), each of which will carry passive microwave radiometers and/or microwave sounders, to increase observation frequency. Although the TRMM satellite focused on observation of the tropics, the GPM mission covers broader areas including high latitudes.
Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have been continuously observed from numerous ground-based observation points around the world, but there still exist gaps in coverage. The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT),known as “IBUKI”, has been observing the global distribution of carbon dioxide and methane column abundances and changes in this distribution over time. The EORC is working to calibrate and validate GOSAT observation data to maintain and enhance its quality. JAXA, the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), and the Ministry of the Environment(MOE) provide carbon dioxide colunm density and methane derived from GOSAT observation data to users.
Human activities are said to be responsible for the large climate changes that we have been experiencing in recent years such as torrential rains and extremely hot or cold summers. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has reported that the largest errors when predicting these climate changes are induced by a lack of understanding of atmospheric fine particles, or aerosols, and clouds, and the interactions between them. The Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) is an international joint project with the European Space Agency (ESA) that aims to observe the three-dimensional structures of clouds and aerosols and to drastically reduce climate change prediction errors.
The Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) is planned as the comprehensive observation system of the Earth System's essential variables of atmosphere, ocean, land, cryosphere, and ecosystem. Most of these observations are expected to provide data commonly useful to the climate research and the meteorology. Additionally, the mission is designed to find out the traces of human-induced environmental changes, such as deforestations, forest fires, air and water quality changes to distinguish the human-induced changes and the natural cyclic changes. GCOM will take over the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II) mission and transition into long-term monitoring of the Earth.
Global climate changes have increased the risk of extreme weather events, such as heavy rains with increased frequency and intensity, and typhoons of increased size, as well as water-related disasters, such as floods, high tides, landslides, and droughts. To protect the public from such risks and to take appropriate measures, we must monitor the water cycle accurately and timely. The EORC is verifying the quality of data collected by the JAXA-NASA joing Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The EORC is also developing and verifying algorithms for extracting such physical quantities as precipitation, sea surface temperature, and soil moisture and is processing the resulting data.